Using Information Technology 10e Complete Edition

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January 23, 2012


Paperback, 608 pages


007351683X / 9780073516837


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Main description

USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY; A Practical Introduction to Computers & Communications 10/e “If there is anything we have learned during 18 years of writing and revising this computer concepts book, it is this: Not only does the landscape of computer education change rapidly, but so do the students. . . . This edition, then, is written for the Always On generation, helping students use technology to enrich their personal lives.” –Brian K. Williams & Stacey C. Sawyer

Table of contents

Using Information Technology 10e CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY: YOUR DIGITALWORLD 1.1 THE PRACTICAL USER: How BecomingComputer Savvy Benefits You 1.2 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & YOURLIFE: The Future Now Two Parts of IT: Computers &CommunicationsEducation: The Promise of More Interactive &Individualized Learning Practical Action Box: How to Be a Good OnlineStudent Health: High Tech for Wellness Money: Toward the Cashless Society Leisure: Infotech in Entertainment & the Arts Government & Electronic Democracy:Participating in the Civic Realm Jobs & Careers 1.3 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IS ALLPERVASIVE:Cellphones, Email, the Internet, &the E-World The Phone Grows Up “You’ve Got Mail!” Email’s Mass Impact Practical Action Box: Managing Your Email The Internet, the World Wide Web, & the“Plumbing of Cyberspace” College Students & the E-World 1.4 THE “ALL-PURPOSE MACHINE”: TheVarieties of Computers All Computers, Great & Small: The Categoriesof Machines Supercomputers Mainframe Computers Workstations Microcomputers Microcontrollers Servers 1.5 Understanding Your Computer How Computers Work: Three Key Concepts Pretending to Customize a Desktop Computer:Basic Knowledge of How a Computer Works Input Hardware: Keyboard & Mouse Processing & Memory Hardware: Inside theSystem Cabinet Storage Hardware: Hard Drive & CD/DVDDrive Output Hardware: Video & Sound Cards, Monitor,Speakers, & Printer Communications Hardware: Modem Software 1.6 Where Is Information TechnologyHeaded? Computers: Miniaturization, Speed, &Affordability Communications: Connectivity, Interactivity, &Multimedia When Computers & Communications Combine:Convergence, Portability, Personalization,Collaboration, & Cloud Computing “E” Also Stands for Ethics Experience Box: Better Organization & TimeManagement: Dealing with the Information Delugein College—& in Life CHAPTER 2: THE INTERNET & THE WORLD WIDEWEB: EXPLORING CYBERSPACE 2.1 Connecting to the Internet: Narrowband,Broadband, & Access Providers Narrowband (Dial-Up Modem): Low Speed butInexpensive High-Speed Phone Lines: More Expensive butAvailable in Most Cities Problem for Telephone Internet Connections: TheLast Mile Cable Modem: Close Competitor to DSL Satellite Wireless Connections Other Wireless Connections: Wi-Fi, 3G, & 4G Internet Access Providers (ISPs):Three Kinds 2.2 How Does the Internet Work? Internet Connections: POPs, IXPs,Backbone, & Internet2 Internet Communications: Protocols,Packets, & Addresses Who Runs the Internet? 2.3 The World Wide Web The Face of the Web: Browsers,Websites, & Web Pages How the Browser Finds Things: URLs 66 The Nuts & Bolts of the Web: HTML &Hyperlinks Using Your Browser to Get aroundthe Web Web Portals: Starting Points for FindingInformation Search Services & Search Engines &How They Work Four Web Search Tools: Individual SearchEngines, Subject Directories, Metasearch Engines,& Specialized Search Engines Smart Searching: Three GeneralStrategies Practical Action Box: Evaluating & SourcingInformation Found on the Web Multimedia Search Tools: Image, Audio, &Video Searching Practical Action Box: Serious Web SearchTechniques Desktop Search: Tools for Searching YourComputer’s Hard Disk Tagging: Saving Links for EasierRetrieval Later 2.4 Email & Other Ways ofCommunicating over the Net Two Ways to Send & Receive Email How to Use Email Sorting Your Email Attachments Instant Messaging FTP—for Copying All the Free Files You Want Newsgroups—for Online Typed Discussions onSpecific Topics Listservs: Email-Based DiscussionGroups Netiquette: Appropriate OnlineBehavior 2.5 THE ONLINE GOLD MINE: Telephony,Multimedia, Webcasting, Blogs,E-Commerce, & Social Networking Telephony: The Internet Telephone &Videophone Multimedia on the Web The Web Automatically Comes to You:Webcasting, Blogging, & Podcasting E-Commerce: B2B Commerce, Online Finance,Auctions, & Job Hunting Web 2.0: Social Networking, MediaSharing, Social-Network Aggregation, &Microblogging Practical Action Box: Social Networking: Worththe Convenience? 2.6 THE INTRUSIVE INTERNET: Snooping,Spamming, Spoofing, Phishing, Pharming,Cookies, & Spyware Snooping on Your Email: Your Messages AreOpen to Anyone Spam: Electronic Junk Mail Spoofing, Phishing, & Pharming: Phony EmailSenders & Websites Cookies: Convenience or Hindrance? Spyware—Adware, Browser & Search Hijackers,& Key Loggers: Intruders to Track Your Habits &Steal Your Data Practical Action Box: Tips for AvoidingSpyware Experience Box: Web Research, Term Papers, &Plagiarism CHAPTER 3: SOFTWARE: TOOLS FORPRODUCTIVITY & CREATIVITY 3.1 SYSTEM SOFTWARE: The Power behindthe Power 3.2 THE OPERATING SYSTEM: What It Does Booting CPU Management File Management Task Management Security Management 3.3 OTHER SYSTEM SOFTWARE: Device Drivers& Utility Programs Device Drivers: Running PeripheralHardware Practical Action Box: Utility Programs Utilities: Service Programs 3.4 Common Features of the User Interface The GUI: The Graphical User Interface The Help Command 3.5 Common Operating Systems Macintosh Operating System Microsoft Windows Network Operating Systems: OES, WindowsServer, Unix, & Linux Embedded Operating Systems forHandhelds 3.6 APPLICATION SOFTWARE: GettingStarted Application Software: For Sale, For Free, or ForRent? Tutorials & Documentation A Few Facts about Files & the Usefulness ofImporting & Exporting Types of Application Software 3.7 Word Processing Software 3.8 Spreadsheet Programs The Basics: How Spreadsheet Programs Work Analytical Graphics: Creating Charts 3.9 Database Software The Benefits of Database Software The Basics: How Databases Work Personal Information Managers (PIMs) 3.10 Specialty Application Software Presentation Graphics Software Financial Software Desktop Publishing Drawing & Painting Programs Video/Audio Editing Software Animation Software Multimedia Authoring Software Web Page Design/Authoring Software Project Management Software Practical Action Box: Help in Building Your WebPage Integrated Software & Software Suites Portable Document Format (PDF) Computer-Aided Design (CAD) 3.11 Filenames & Extensions Data Compression: Putting More Data in LessSpace Experience Box: Getting Help from TechSupport CHAPTER 4: HARDWARE: THE CPU & STORAGE:HOW TO CHOOSE A MULTIMEDIACOMPUTER SYSTEM 4.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, &Mobility From Vacuum Tubes to Transistors toMicrochips Miniaturization Miracles: Microchips& Microprocessors Mobility Choosing an Inexpensive Personal Computer:Understanding Computer Ads 4.2 THE SYSTEM UNIT: The Basics The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical Statesto Represent Data & Instructions Machine Language The Computer Case: Bays, Buttons, &Boards Power Supply The Motherboard & the MicroprocessorChip Practical Action Box: Power Issues: Problemswith Electrical Power to Your Computer Processing Speeds: From Megahertz toPicoseconds 4.3 MORE ON THE SYSTEM UNIT: WhatSupports the Processor? Word Size The Parts of the CPU How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, &Flash How Cache Works Other Methods of Speeding Up Processing Ports & Cables Expandability: Buses & Cards 4.4 Secondary Storage Hard Disks Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs Smart Cards Flash & Solid State Memory Practical Action Box: Storing Your Stuff: HowLong Will Digitized Data Last? Online Secondary Storage Practical Action Box: Starting Over withYour Hard Drive: Erasing, Reformatting, &Reloading 4.5 Future Developments in Processing &Storage Future Developments in Processing Future Developments in SecondaryStorage Experience Box: How to Buy a Laptop CHAPTER 5: HARDWARE: INPUT & OUTPUT:TAKING CHARGE OF COMPUTING &COMMUNICATIONS 5.1 INPUT & OUTPUT 5.2 INPUT HARDWARE Keyboards Pointing Devices Scanning & Reading Devices Audio-Input Devices Webcams & Video-Input Cards Digital Cameras Speech-Recognition Systems Sensors Radio-Frequency Identification Tags Human-Biology-Input Devices 5.3 OUTPUT HARDWARE Traditional Softcopy Output: DisplayScreens Traditional Hardcopy Output: Printers Practical Action Box Buying a Printer Mixed Output: Sound, Voice, & Video 5.4 INPUT & OUTPUT TECHNOLOGY &QUALITY OF LIFE: Health & Ergonomics Health Matters Ergonomics: Design with People in Mind 5.5 THE FUTURE OF INPUT & OUTPUT Toward More Input from Remote Locations Toward More Source Data Automation Toward More Realistic Output Experience Box: Good Habits: Protecting YourComputer System, Your Data, & Your Health CHAPTER 6: COMMUNICATIONS, NETWORKS,& SAFEGUARDS: THE WIRED &WIRELESS WORLD 6.1 FROM THE ANALOG TO THE DIGITALAGE The Digital Basis of Computers: Electrical Signalsas Discontinuous Bursts The Analog Basis of Life: Electrical Signals asContinuous Waves Purpose of the Modem: Converting Digital Signalsto Analog Signals & Back Converting Reality to Digital Form 6.2 NETWORKS The Benefits of Networks A Few Disadvantages of Networks Types of Networks: WANs, MANs, & Others How Networks Are Structured: Client/Server &Peer to Peer Intranets, Extranets, & VPNs Components of a Network Network Topologies Ethernet 6.3 WIRED COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA Wired Communications Media: Wires &Cables Wired Communications Media for Homes 6.4 WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONSMEDIA The Electromagnetic Spectrum, the Radio-Frequency (RF) Spectrum, & Bandwidth Practical Action: Telecommuting & Telework:The Nontraditional Workplace Five Types of Wireless CommunicationsMedia Long-Distance Wireless: One-WayCommunication Long-Distance Wireless: Two-WayCommunication Short-Range Wireless: Two-WayCommunication 6.5 CYBERTHREATS, HACKERS, &SAFEGUARDS Cyberthreats Practical Action Box: WikiLeaks & DDoS Practical Action Box: Ways to Minimize VirusAttacks Some Cybervillains: Hackers & Crackers Online Safety Practical Action Box: How to Deal withPasswords Experience Box: Virtual Meetings: Linking UpElectronically CHAPTER 7: PERSONAL TECHNOLOGY: THEFUTURE IS YOU 7.1 Convergence, Portability, &Personalization Convergence Portability Personalization Popular Personal Technologies 7.2 Portable Media Players How PMP/MP3 Players Work The Societal Effects of PMPs Using PMPs in College 7.3 High-Tech Radio: Satellite, HighDefinition & Internet Satellite Radio HD Radio Internet Radio Podcasting 7.4 Digital Cameras: ChangingPhotography How Digital Cameras Work The Societal Effects of Digital Cameras Practical Action Box: Online Viewing & Sharingof Digital Photos 7.5 Digital Television Three Kinds of Television: DTV, HDTV,SDTV The Societal Effects of the New TV 7.6 E-Book Readers: The New ReadingMachines How an E-Book Reader Works The Drawbacks of E-Book Readers 7.7 Tablet PCs 7.8 Smartphones: More Than Talk How a Mobile Phone Works The Societal Effects of Cellphones 7.9 Videogame Systems: The UltimateConvergence Machine? EXPERIENCE BOX: The “Always On”Generation CHAPTER 8: DATABASES ARE IN YOUR LIFE:DIGITAL ENGINES FOR TODAY’SECONOMY 8.1 MANAGING FILES: Basic Concepts How Data Is Organized: The Data Storage Hierarchy The Key Field 8.2 Database Management Systems The Benefits of Database Management Systems Three Database Components Practical Action Box: Accuracy &Completeness The Database Administrator 8.3 Database Models Hierarchical Database Network Database Relational Database Object-Oriented Database Multidimensional Database 8.4 Data Mining The Process of Data Mining 8.5 DATABASES & THE DIGITAL ECONOMY:E-Commerce & E-Business E-Commerce: Online Buying & Selling 8.6 INFORMATION SYSTEMS INORGANIZATIONS: Using Databases to HelpMake Decisions The Qualities of Good Information Information Flows within an Organization Computer-Based Information Systems Office Information Systems Transaction Processing Systems Management Information Systems Decision Support Systems Executive Support Systems Expert Systems 8.7 Artificial Intelligence Expert Systems Natural Language Processing Intelligent Agents Pattern Recognition Fuzzy Logic Virtual Reality & Simulation Devices Robotics Two Approaches to Artificial Intelligence: Weakversus Strong AI Artificial Life, the Turing Test, & AI Ethics 8.8 DATABASES: Concerns about Privacy &Identity Theft The Threat to Privacy Identity Theft EXPERIENCE BOX: Preventing Your Identity fromGetting Stolen CHAPTER 9: THE CHALLENGES OF THE DIGITALAGE: SOCIETY & INFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY TODAY 9.1 TRUTH ISSUES: Manipulating DigitalData Manipulation of Sound Manipulation of Photos Manipulation of Video & Television 9.2 SECURITY ISSUES: Threats to Computers &Communications Systems Errors & Accidents Natural Hazards Computer Crimes Computer Criminals Practical Action Box: Is the Boss Watching You?Trust in the Workplace 9.3 SECURITY SAFEGUARDS: ProtectingComputers & Communications Deterrents to Computer Crime Identification & Access Encryption Protection of Software & Data Disaster-Recovery Plans 9.4 QUALITY-OF-LIFE ISSUES: TheEnvironment, Mental Health, Child Protection, &the Workplace Environmental Problems Mental-Health Problems Protecting Children: Pornography, SexualPredators, & Online Bullies Workplace Problems: Impediments toProductivity 9.5 ECONOMIC & POLITICAL ISSUES:Employment & the Haves/Have-Nots Technology, the Job Killer? Gap between Rich & Poor Whom Does the Internet Serve? In a World of Breakneck Change, Can You StillThrive? Experience Box: Student Use of Computers: SomeControversies CHAPTER 10: BUILDING SYSTEMS & APPLICATIONS:SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT,PROGRAMMING, & LANGUAGES 10.1 Systems Development and the Life Cycle ofa Software Project The Purpose of a System Getting the Project Going: How It Starts, Who’sInvolved The Six Phases of Systems Analysis &Design The First Phase: Preliminary Investigation The Second Phase: Systems Analysis The Third Phase: Systems Design The Fourth Phase: Systems Development The Fifth Phase: Systems Implementation The Sixth Phase: Systems Maintenance 10.2 PROGRAMMING: Traditionally a Five-StepProcedure The First Step: Clarify the ProgrammingNeeds The Second Step: Design the Program The Third Step: Code the Program The Fourth Step: Test the Program The Fifth Step: Document & Maintain theProgram 10.3 Five Generations of ProgrammingLanguages First Generation: Machine Language Second Generation: Assembly Language Third Generation: High-Level or ProceduralLanguages Fourth Generation: Very-High-Level or Problem-Oriented Languages Fifth Generation: Natural Languages 10.4 Programming Languages UsedToday FORTRAN: The language of mathematics and thefirst high-level language COBOL: The language of business BASIC: The easy language Pascal: The simple language C: For portability, operating systems, andscientific use C++: Enhancement of C LISP: For artificial intelligence programs 10.5 Object-Oriented & VisualProgramming Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) Visual Programming: The Example of VisualBASIC 10.6 MARKUP & SCRIPTING LANGUAGES HTML: For creating 2-D web documents andlinks VRML: For creating 3-D web pages XML: For making the web work better JavaScript: For dynamic web pages Flash: Also for creating dynamic web pages ActiveX: For creating interactive web pages CGI (Common Gateway Interface) Perl: For CGI scripts PHP (Personal Home Page, or PHP HypertextPreprocessor) Experience Box: Critical Thinking Tools

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